Different part of a transformer

What is Electrical Transfomer ? what are different part of the transformer ?

What is Electrical Transformer ?

Electrical transformer is a static device, which transfer energy from one circuit to anotner circuit either steps up or step down the votlage without changing the frequecy level. Its works on the basis of mutual induction phenomenon that relate to faraday law of electromagnetic induction. Which transformer is Increasing th voltage level called step up transformer and which is decreasing the voltage level called step down transformer.

Static means there is no moving part in the transformer when it is transferring the energy from one circuit to another circuit. Actually its based on Mutual induction phenomenon. While transforming the energy it step tp or down the volatge level depending upon number of coil used in winding.

What is different parts of transformer ?

  1. Core
  2. Winding (primary and secondry)
  3. Insulation
  4. Tank
  5. Bushing (HT & LT)
  6. Transformer Oil
  7. Breather
  8. Radiator
  9. Explosion Vent
  10. Tap Changer
  11. Buchholz Relay
  12. Conservator Tank

1. Transformer Core

It is the interal part of transformer.  Core provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux. Core usally made of thin sheets of high grade grain oriented steel which are seperarted by thin insulated material.

Transfomer Core

2. Transformer Winding

In the transformer two winding are placed on core for one pahse. One is primary winding and other one is secondry winding.These winding having mutiple turns of  copper and aluminum inuslated to each other and wound on core. Winding size depends on current rating , short circuit and impedendce.

Primary winding or secondry winding also called HV or LV winding.HV Means High volatge winding where high volatge connected in transformer. It May be primary or secondry depending upon type of transformer. “LV” means Low Voltge winding where low voltge winding connected in transformer.

core with winding
Internal Part of transformer

3. Insulation

In elctrical system insulation is very important part of any electrical system. Same in transformer insulation is provided B/w each coil of winding to avoiding failure of tranformer.

Check in image: There is core shown of thin sheets insulated to each other. Same LV winding are insulated to core by high dielectric material , high temperature withstand and good mechanical properties material.Also HV winding are insulating to LV winding with same capabilty type of material.

4. Tank

Transfomer tank is made of steel metal of thick sheets. It provides protection to internal parts of transformer like Winding and core. It contain transformer oil which is used for cooling of transformer.And details purpose of transformer tank we will learn in our next posts.

Tank and bushing

5. Bushing

Transformer having two type of bushing for connection of transformer. One is HV bushing where high voltage connection is done. and another one is LV where LV connection done. HV Bushing having higher size then LV bushing.

6. Transformer oil

It having high insulated and high temperature with stand capability.It provide insulation to internal part of transformer and main temperature in transformer . Usally it  filled in transformer tank up to conservator tank (Half conservator tank).

7. Breather

Breather is present in all oil-type cool transformers which having a conservator tank on it . To keep the oil-free from moisture breather is used in transformer .  It contains silical gel of blue colour. Which absorbs moisture from air when it enters into transformer.


8. Radiator

When transformer are in working condition coil gets heat as well as oil gets heat. So for circulation of oil and for cooling purpose radiator are provided on transformer tank.


9. Explosion Vent

Explosion vent , as name appears when there on explosin in transformer it works.

It provides way to emergency exit for oil and air went transformer got over heated or any other reason.

Is is mettalic pipe connected to conservator tank.

Explosion Vent

10. Tap Changer

When the required voltage is not coming from transformer. Tap changers are used to adjust the secondary voltage of transformers according to our requirement. There are two types of tap changers. On-load tap changers and Off-load tap changers.

Onload tap changer can be used on load and ther is no requirement to interupt the running supply.

Where as off load tap changer work only in off conditon.

11. Buchholz relay

It is one of the most important parts of oil-immersed transformers. This realy is used above the rated capacity of  500kVA transformer. It is an oil and gas actuated relay that is used to observe faults occurring in oil type transfomer.







12. Conservator Tank

Conservator tank is provided on top of transformer tank. This tank is half filled of transformer oil used in maintain oil level in transformer.

It works when there is contraction or expansion in oil it provide space to oil to maintain oil level.

13. Temperture Gauge

Temperature meter is place on transformer tank. This is used to know about the internal temperature of transformer

Temp Gauge

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